The modern computer took its shape with the arrival of your time. It had been around the 16th century when the evolution of the computer started. The initial computer faced many changes, obviously for the betterment. It continuously improved itself in terms of speed, accuracy, size, and price to urge the form of the fashionable day computer. This long period is often conveniently divided into the subsequent phases called computer generations:
- First Generation Computers (1940-1956)
- Second Generation Computers (1956-1963)
- Third Generation Computers (1964-1971)
- Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present)
- Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Beyond)
Before there were graphing calculators, spreadsheets, and computer algebra systems, mathematicians and inventors searched for solutions to ease the burden of calculation.
First Generation Computers: Vacuum Tubes (1940-1956)
The technology behind the primary generation of computers was a fragile glass device, which was called vacuum tubes. These computers were very heavy and really large. These weren’t very reliable and programming on them was a tedious task as they used high-level programming language and used no OS. First-generation computers were used for calculation, storage, and control purpose. They were too bulky and large that they needed a full room and consume rot of electricity.
Main first generation computers are:
- ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, built by J. Presper Eckert and John V. Mauchly was a general-purpose computer. It had been very heavy, large, and contained 18,000 vacuum tubes.
- EDVAC: Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer was designed by von Neumann. It could store data also as instruction and thus the speed was enhanced.
- UNIVAC: Universal Automatic Computer was developed in 1952 by Eckert and Mauchly.
Second Generation Computers: Transistors (1956-1963)
Second-generation computers used the technology of transistors rather than bulky vacuum tubes. Another feature was the core storage. A transistor may be a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a sign or opens or closes a circuit.
Transistors were invented in Bell Labs. The use of transistors made it possible to perform powerfully and with due speed. It reduced the dimensions and price and thankfully the warmth too, which was generated by vacuum tubes. Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, programming language, and input, and output units also came into the force within the second generation.
The programming language was shifted from high level to programming language and made programming comparatively a simple task for programmers. Languages used for programming during this era were FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL (1958), and COBOL (1959).
Third Generation Computers: Integrated Circuits. (1964-1971)
During the third generation, technology envisaged a shift from huge transistors to integrated circuits, also referred to as IC. Here a variety of transistors were placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors. The most feature of this era’s computer was the speed and reliability. IC was made from silicon and is also called silicon chips.
A single IC, has many transistors, registers, and capacitors built on one thin slice of silicon. The value size was reduced and memory space and dealing efficiency were increased during this generation. Programming was now wiped out Higher level languages like BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Minicomputers find their shape during this era.
Fourth Generation Computers: Micro-processors (1971-Present)
In 1971 First microprocessors were used, and the large-scale integration of LSI circuits was built on one chip called microprocessors. The most advantage of this technology is that one microprocessor can contain all the circuits required to perform arithmetic, logic, and control functions on one chip.
The computers using microchips were called microcomputers. This generation provided the even smaller size of computers, with larger capacities. That’s not enough, then Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits replaced LSI circuits. The Intel 4004chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the pc from the central processing unit and memory to input/ output controls on one chip and allowed the dimensions to reduce drastically.
Technologies like multiprocessing, multiprogramming, time-sharing, operating speed, and virtual memory made it a more user-friendly and customary device. The concept of private computers and computer networks came into being within the fourth generation.
Fifth Generation Computers
The technology behind the fifth generation of computers is AI. It allows computers to behave like humans. It is often seen in programs like voice recognition, area of medicines, and entertainment. Within the field of g,ames, playing has also it’s shown remarkable performance where computers are capable of beating human competitors.
The speed is highest, size is that the smallest and area of use has remarkably increased within the fifth generation computers. Though not a hundred percent AI has been achieved to date but keeping in sight the present developments, it is often said that this dream also will become a reality very soon.
To summarize the features of varied generations of computers, it is often said that a big improvement has been seen as far as the speed and accuracy of functioning care, but if we mention the dimensions, it’s been small over the years. The value is additionally diminishing and reliability is increasing.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question No 1:- What are the uses of computer generation?
Answer:- Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies.
Question No 2:- What is the importance of each generation of computers in society?
Answer:-Early modern computers are typically grouped into four “generations.” Each generation is marked by improvements in basic technology. These improvements in technology have been extraordinary.
Question No 3:- What are the generations of computers explained?
Answer:-This long period is often conveniently divided into the subsequent phases called computer generations: First Generation Computers (1940-1956) Second Generation Computers (1956-1963) Third Generation Computers (1964-1971) Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present).
Question No 4:- Who invented the first generation computer?
Answer:-Introduction: 1946-1959 is the period of first-generation computers. J.P.Eckert and J.W. Mauchly invented the first successful electronic computer called ENIAC, ENIAC stands for “Electronic Numeric Integrator And Calculator ”.
Question No 5:- What is the duration of a first-generation computer?
Answer:- The period of the first generation was from 1940-to 1956. The computers of the first generation used vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for the CPU (Central Processing Unit).