Major Types of Landform
Major Types of Landform

A landform is a physical feature on the solid surface of the Earth or another planetary body, whether it be man-made or natural. A given terrain is made up of several landforms, and topography refers to how these landforms are arranged in the surrounding area.


Major Landforms of the Earth will be covered in detail in this article. They will be helpful in the IAS Exam’s Geography section. This will also be helpful in the exams such as SSC, RBI, WBCS, etc. Edureify has tried to cover all the aspects of this topic in a short and crisp manner.

Types of Landforms

The earth’s surface is uneven; certain areas may be rough and others may be smooth. There is an infinite diversity of landforms on the planet.

These two processes, which produced these landforms, are as follows:

Internal Process: The Internal Process causes the earth’s surface to rise and fall.The land surface is continually being worn down and rebuilt by two processes, which are as follows:

  • The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
  • Deposition is the process of reconstructing a decreased surface (occurred due to erosion).
  • Running water, ice, and wind all contribute to the erosion and deposition processes.

Based on height and slope, landforms can be categorised into the following groups:

  • Mountains
  • Plateaus
  • Plains


A mountain is an elevated area of the crust of the Earth, typically with steep sides that reveal a substantial amount of bedrock that has been exposed. A mountain is larger than a hill and differs from a plateau in that it typically rises at least 300 metres (1000 feet) above the surrounding terrain. It also typically has a smaller summit area. Most mountains are found in mountain ranges, while a handful are isolated summits.

  • A mountain is any naturally occurring elevation of the earth’s surface.
  • Range is a line of mountains.
  • Glaciers – In mountains, glaciers are ice rivers that are always frozen solid.

How can the mountains be of use?

  • Mountains are really beneficial in many ways.
  • They serve as a reservoir for water, and many rivers originate in glaciers on the mountains.
  • Water is captured and stored for human use in reservoirs.
  • Both irrigation and hydroelectricity production need water from the highlands.
  • Mountains are home to a wide range of plants and animals.
  • The forests offer food, shelter, fuel, and other goods like raisins, gum, etc.
  • Mountains also provide a calm site for travellers.


A plateau is a flat area of a highland that is raised sharply above the surrounding area on at least one side. It is also known as a high plain or a tableland in geology and physical geography. 

How helpful are plateaus?

  • Due to their abundance in mineral reserves, plateaus are particularly beneficial.
  • An example is the famed gold and diamond mining on the African plateau.
  • India’s Chhotanagpur plateau is home to a sizable iron, coal, and manganese reserve.


A plain is a flat area of land in geography that often has little variation in elevation and is mostly devoid of trees. The three types of plains include coastal plains, plateaus or uplands, and lowlands along valleys or at the foot of mountains.

Plains often don’t rise above mean sea level by more than 200 metres.

Plains are typically incredibly fertile, making them extremely densely populated areas of the world.

For instance, the largest plains created by rivers are in Asia and North America.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Ques:- What are the major landforms of the earth?

Ans:- Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains are the four major types of landforms.

Ques:- What are the major landforms and what are mountains?

Ans:- Mountains, hills, plateaus and plains are the four major types of land-forms. A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface. There are three types of mountains- Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains.

Ques:- How are the major landforms formed?

Ans:- Natural processes such as weathering, water, elevation, sinking, and erosion of the soil are constantly shaping the Earth’s surface. It doesn’t really happen overnight. In fact, it takes hundreds and thousands of years for us to notice these changes. These processes lead to the formation of various landforms.

Question:- What is plain and plateau?

Ans:- Plains and plateaus are both flat areas of land; the main difference between plain and plateau lies in their elevation. A plateau is a flat land that is raised significantly above the ground whereas plain is a flat, low-lying area.

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