Java’s encapsulation feature is a potent tool for storing a class’s data members and data methods together. It is done by creating a secure field that is only available to other people in the same class.

In Java, encapsulation refers to the practice of combining data (variables) and the code that affects them (methods) into a single entity. The variables of a class are protected by an encapsulation so that only the methods of the class can access them. In Java, encapsulation refers to the combination of code (methods) and data (variables) into a single entity. A class’s variables are protected by encapsulation so that only the methods of the class in which they are found can access them.

In Java, encapsulation is an object-oriented technique for merging the class’s data members and data methods inside a user-defined class. Declaring this class as private is crucial. 

What is the Need of Encapsulation?

Encapsulation takes coding process improvisation to a new level. Encapsulation is necessary in Java for a number of reasons.

More Control

The data members and data methods inside the class are completely under your control thanks to encapsulation.

Obtain and Establish

The built-in support for “Getter and Setter” methods in the common IDEs speeds up development.

Direct Access

Any external classes cannot access data members or data methods thanks to security encapsulation. The encapsulation procedure increases the security of the data that has been encased.


It is possible to successfully implement changes to one section of the code without having an impact on any other sections.

Java Data Hiding

To prevent access to the data members, data methods, and their logical implementation, a mechanism known as data hiding is used. Utilizing access specifiers will enable data concealing.


The first line of data concealing is default. The compiler will set “default” as the access specifier for any Java class that is not explicitly mentioned with an access specifier. The default access specs and the public access specifier are remarkably similar.


A class is given access specifications by the public access specifier so that it can be accessed from anywhere in the programme.

Methods of Getter and Setter

The terms “getter” and “setter” are frequently used in object-oriented programming languages. As indicated by the names, a getter method may be used to get an attribute, and a setter method can be used to modify it. How you implement an attribute will influence whether it can be read and changed. You can also decide whether the attribute is read-only or completely concealed from view.

Advantages of Encapsulation in JAVA

Encapsulation has been implemented in Java and has shown to be quite useful when programming in real-time. The important advantages of encapsulation are as follows.

  • A class’s data members and data methods are entirely under its control.
  • The class will continue to maintain read-only data members and functions.
  • The user is shielded from the intricate implementations in the code via data hiding.
  • The class’s variables can be read-only or write-only depending on the needs of the programmer.
  • Java’s encapsulation feature offers the option of reused code.
  • Encapsulation will make it easier to swiftly modify already-written code.
  • It is simple to unit test code that was created with encapsulation.


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