In the last series, Eduriefy covered the important aspects of the Stone Age:A journey to Transition. This series will take you down to the lanes of Harappa and MohenjoDaro which has many things to say about the past. This topic is important for government exams such as RRB, WBCS, UPSC, etc.
Some of the Important Points about Harappan Civilization
Around 3300 BC, the Indus Valley Civilization emerged. Between 2600 BC and 1900 BC, it was in full bloom (Mature Indus Valley Civilization). Around 1900 BC, it started to deteriorate, and around 1400 BC, it vanished.
- In honour of the first city to be discovered and excavated, Harappa, this is also known as the Harappan Civilization (Punjab, Pakistan).
- The earliest indications of cotton agriculture can be found in the Pre-Harappan civilization discovered in Mehrgarh, Pakistan.
- This civilization was geographically spread across Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Western Uttar Pradesh. In addition, it stretched from Mandu (Jammu) in the north to Daimabad (Ahmednagar, Maharashtra) in the south, from Sutkagendor (in Balochistan) in the west to Alamgirpur (Western UP) in the east. Additionally, some Indus Valley sites have been discovered in Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.
Discovery of Harappa
Sir John Marshall made the initial excavations of the Harrapan civilization in 1921. South Asia was home to a bronze age civilization. In the basins of the Indus River, the Indus valley civilization developed. This civilization covered a large territory that included the Indus plain, Northern Rajasthan, and the Kathiawar region of Western India.
Important Cities of the Harappan Civilization and its importance
1)Mohenjo-Daro, located in Sind, Pakistan:-It was one of the biggest cities in the Indus Valley, and it was located on the right bank. People used to take a spiritual bath there where the large bath was located. The greatest structure was the Granary, a massive rectangular edifice with several pillars used as an assembly hall.
In the Rajasthani area of Ganganagar, where the name Kalibangan means “black bangles,” this location is found on the southern bank of the Ghaggar rivers. Pre-Harappan and Harappan cultural periods were present in the city. The parallelogram citadel was found during the Pre-Harappan phase.
- Gujarat’s Lothal and Dholavira
In Gujarat, near the Gulf of Khambhat, Lothal is situated next to a Sabarmati tributary, while Dholavira is in the Kutch district. Evidence on lothal has also been found.
It is the earliest Indus site to have been excavated, beginning in 1921, and is situated on the left bank of the Indus River.
Life in the city of Harappa:
The people enjoyed dancing, singing, fishing, gambling, and other activities. The society was found to be matriarchal, with merchants as its dominant group. Both men and women were fond of ornaments (such as necklaces, finger rings, bangles, anklets, and bracelets).
- Street, Houses, and Drains:
Houses were two stories tall, the rooms were arranged around a courtyard, water overflowed from the houses’ drains onto the street, an underground drainage system had been established, the drains were lined with bricks to demonstrate their concern for sanitation, and grid systems were widespread.
Decline of Harappan Civilization
- The reasons for this civilization’s demise are not well understood. Archaeologists now think that the civilization fell gradually rather than abruptly. As people moved east, cities were left in ruins. Writing and commerce fell.
- The Aryan invasion, according to Mortimer Wheeler, may have contributed to the Indus Valley’s downfall. This idea has since been refuted.
- Robert Raikes contends that the fall was brought on by tectonic shifts and floods.
- Rivers drying up, deforestation, and loss of vegetation are a few more reasons given. It’s probable that some cities, but not all, were completely destroyed by floods. It is widely acknowledged that a number of events may have contributed to the Indus Valley civilization’s demise.
- There were only roughly 1400 new cities.
This were the details about the Indus Valley or the Harappan Valley Civilization. Stay tuned with Edureify to know about “The Rig Vedic Phase”.