Image: The human body complete introduction
Image: The human body complete introduction

The Human Body is divided into several parts and each part has its amazing role to play. This is an important topic for exams like NEET and JEE. Thus, Eduriefy has tried to cover human physiology and anatomy in several ways. Read the detailed article to know everything about the topic.

The different levels in a human body organization are:-

  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organs Systems


The Human body system is divided into these parts:-

  • Nervous System
  • Respiratory system
  • Muscular System
  • Reproductive System
  • Skeletal System
  • Circulatory System


Nervous System

The nervous system aims to coordinate the body with the changing environment. The nervous system enables the human in responding both to the external and internal environment. The cell type of the nervous system is the nerve. Now we will discuss the different organs and their functions. The organs concerning the nervous system are:-


Spinal Cord

The spinal Cord sends instructions from the brain to the rest of the body. Any organism with a part of the nerve cord is known as chordate. The spinal cord connects all the nerves to the body. It helps to keep balance in our bodies. Our spinal cord is protected through the backbone of the body. It is connected with the Medulla.



Our brain is the control system of our body. It uses the instructions it receives from the nerves to coordinate all the actions and reactions. It helps us to think, remember, feel and move. Our brain is protected by the skull. It has three main parts:- Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Medulla.



Our nerves work as a postman. They carry messages from different parts of the body to the brain as the postman delivers our letters from the post office at our doorstep. Nerves are made up of thin threads called neurons.


Skeletal System

The skeletal system is a rigid framework of bones that serves many important functions. First, it gives shape and support to our body. Second, it allows us to walk, bend and run. Then, it protects the soft internal organs of our body. When we are born we have more than 300 bones. As we grow older, some bones fuse. Finally, we have 206 bones. Bones are hard from the outside and soft from the inside. They are made up of tissues and their inner hollow cavity has a substance called bone marrow. Bone marrow produces new blood cells that carry oxygen to other parts of our body.


Parts of Skeletal System

The parts of the Skeletal System are:- Skull, Backbone, Rib cage, limbs, and girdles.

The skull is a bony framework of the head. It protects our brain. It is made up of 22 bones in which 8 bones fuse to form the brain and the other 14 support our face. Except for the lower jaw, all the bones of the skull are immovable.



The backbone is also known as the vertebral column or spine. It is made up of a series of 33 small bones called vertebrae. Our backbone protects the spinal cord and helps us to stand straight.


Rib cage

12 pairs of ribs surround the chest in the form of a cage. This is called the rib cage. They Protect the lungs, kidneys, heart, and spelling. The ribs are attached to the breast bone in the front and the backbone in the back. The last two pairs called floating ribs are not attached to the breast bone.



Our body has two pairs of limbs. Our arms are called forelimbs and our legs are called hindlimbs. The upper arm has only one bone called the humerus and the lower arm has two bones. The hands, wrists, and elbows are made up of many small bones. The upper leg has only one bone called the femur and at the knee, it joins the two bones of the lower leg. The foot and the ankle have many small bones.



We have two girdles:- pectoral and pelvic. Pectoral girdles form the shoulders and the pelvic girdles form the hips.


Muscular System

Our body has about 600 muscles. They are attached to our bones by tendons. Muscles with bones help the body in movement.

There are three types of muscles:-

  • Voluntary:- These muscles are attached to the bones and are under our control. They are present in our arms, legs, hands, and feet.
  • Involuntary:- These muscles are not under our control. They work on their own. They are present in our stomach walls, intestine, and lungs
  • Cardiac:- These muscles are not attached to our bones. They are present in our hearts. Cardiac muscles coordinate automatically to squeeze the walls of the heart inward. The heart beats nonstop about 1,00,000 times each day. It can do this because of the cardiac muscles.

Our muscles are attached to bones. They pull the bones to produce movements. Muscles work in two ways:- By contraction and relaxation. When muscles contract the bones come closer as we raise our lower arms biceps muscles of the upper arm contract to pull the bones of the upper arm in an upward direction. The triceps muscles relax.


Reproduction System

Reproduction is a fundamental and biological process of life by which an organism produces its kind or its offspring. Reproduction ensures the continuity of life on earth. The reproductive system is a system of organs that work together for reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction:- Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction.

When a single organism reproduces without the involvement of another organism, it is known as asexual reproduction. Some of the kinds of Asexual reproduction is fission where a unicellular organism divides into two or more cells. Budding in hydra, fragmentation in spirogyra, and vegetative propagation in plants among others.

Sexual reproduction occurs both in plants and animals. Sexual reproduction is achieved through the combination of two cells from two individuals. Each parent:- a male and a female contributes their genetic material, giving rise to an offspring having qualities of both.


Respiratory System

The human respiratory system is a system of organs responsible for inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide in humans. The important respiratory organs in living beings include- the lungs, gills, trachea, and skin.

The important functions of the respiratory system include- inhalation and exhalation of gases, exchange of gases between bloodstream and lungs, the gaseous exchange between the bloodstream and body tissues, and olfaction and vibration of vocal cords.

The different types of respiration in animals and humans and plants are:-external respiration and cellular respiration. Internal respiration includes the exchange of gases between blood and cells, external respiration is the breathing process.

Breathing is the physical process of inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide in and out of our lungs. On the contrary, respiration is the chemical process where oxygen is utilized to break down glucose to generate energy to carry out different cellular processes.


Circulatory System

A circulatory system is a system that transports nutrients, respiratory gases, and metabolic products throughout a living organism, permitting integration among the various tissues. The process of circulation includes the intake of metabolic materials, the conveyance of these materials throughout the organism, and the return of harmful by-products to the environment.

The parts of your circulatory system are your:

  • The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout your body.
  • Blood vessels, include your arteries, veins, and capillaries.
  • Blood is made up of red and white blood cells, plasma, and platelets.

All the important systems of the body have been discussed and we hope that it helps the students. Along with studying the topic, you can also practice questions from these topics with the help of expert questions for the topics. It will help the candidates in understanding the topics also.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: Cells related to what divides remarkably faster than other cells in the body?

A: Cells related to hair divide faster than other cells in the body. The living part of the hair is the very bottom part surrounding the papilla, called the bulb.


Q: The smallest bone in the human body is about the size of what?

A: A grain of rice. The smallest bone in the human body is about the size of a grain of rice.


Q: What is the largest organ of the human body?

A: The skin. Your skin is the largest organ in your body. On average, your skin weighs about six pounds, and its job is to protect you from infections.


Q:- What do you mean by human anatomy?

Ans:- Anatomy is the study of the structure of an object. Human anatomy deals with the way the parts of humans interact to form a functional unit. Edureify Intelligent book provides you with complete information


Q:- What do you understand about human physiology?

Ans:- Human Physiology deals with the mechanical, biochemical, and physical functions of humans. It serves as the foundation of modern medicine.










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