Image: JAVA Programming Language
Image: JAVA Programming Language

Beginning to Java

JAVA was developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems Inc in 1995, later acquired by Oracle Corporation. It is a simple programming language. Java makes writing, compiling, and debugging programming easy. It helps to create reusable code and modular programs.


Java is a class-based, object-oriented programming language and is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. A general-purpose programming language made for developers to write once run anywhere that is compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java. Java applications are compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java Virtual Machine. The syntax of Java is similar to c/c++.


History of JAVA


Java’s history is very interesting. It is a programming language created in 1991. James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton, a team of Sun engineers known as the Green team initiated the Java language in 1991. Sun Microsystems released its first public implementation in 1996 as Java 1.0. It provides no-cost -run-times on popular platforms. Java1.0 compiler was re-written in Java by Arthur Van Hoff to strictly comply with its specifications. With the arrival of Java 2, new versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms.


In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached the ISO standards body and later formalized Java, but it soon withdrew from the process. At one time, Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge, despite their proprietary software status. Sun generated revenue from Java through the selling of licenses for specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System.


On November 13, 2006, Sun released much of its Java virtual machine as free, open-source software. On May 8, 2007, Sun finished the process, making all of its JVM’s core code available under open-source distribution terms.


The principles for creating java were simple, robust, secured, high performance, portable, multi-threaded, interpreted, dynamic, etc. In 1995 Java was developed by James Gosling, who is known as the Father of Java. Currently, Java is used in mobile devices, internet programming, games, e-business, etc.



Java Terminology


Before learning Java, one must be familiar with these common terms of Java.


  1. Java Virtual Machine (JVM): This is generally referred to as JVM. There are three execution phases of a program. They are written, compile and run the program. Writing a program is done by a java programmer like you and me.


Now, we understand that the function of Java Virtual Machine is to execute the bytecode produced by the compiler. Every Operating System has a different JVM but the output they produce after the execution of bytecode is the same across all the operating systems. This is why Java is known as a platform-independent language. To know more about JAVA, you can download the Eduriefy app now.


  1. Bytecode is the Development process: As discussed, the Javac compiler of JDK compiles the java source code into bytecode so that it can be executed by JVM. It is saved as a .class file by the compiler. To view the bytecode, a disassembler like java can be used.


  1. Java Development Kit(JDK): While we were using the term JDK when we learn about bytecode and JVM. So, as the name suggests, it is a complete Java development kit that includes everything including compiler, Java Runtime Environment (JRE), java debuggers, java docs, etc. For the program to execute in java, we need to install JDK on our computer to create, compile and run the java program.


  1. Java Runtime Environment (JRE): JDK includes JRE. JRE installation on our computers allows the java program to run, however, we cannot compile it. JRE includes a browser, JVM, applet supports, and plugins. For running the java program, a computer needs JRE.


  1. Garbage Collector: In Java, programmers can’t delete the objects. To delete or recollect that memory JVM has a program called Garbage Collector. Garbage Collectors can recollect the objects that are not referenced. So Java makes the life of a programmer easy by handling memory management.


  1. ClassPath: The classpath is the file path where the java runtime and Java compiler look for .class files to load. By default, JDK provides many libraries. If you want to include external libraries they should be added to the classpath.


Primary/Main Features of Java

  1. Platform Independent: The compiler converts source code to bytecode and then the JVM executes the bytecode generated by the compiler. This bytecode can run on any platform be it Windows, Linux, or macOS which means if we compile a program on Windows, then we can run it on Linux and vice versa. Each operating system has a different JVM, but the output produced by all the OS is the same after the execution of bytecode. That is why we call java a platform-independent language.


  1. Object-Oriented Programming Language: Organizing the program in the terms of collection of objects is a way of object-oriented programming, each of which represents an instance of the class.

The four main concepts of Object-Oriented programming are:

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  1. Simple: Java is one of the simple languages as it does not have complex features like pointers, operator overloading, multiple inheritances, and Explicit memory allocation.


  1. Robust: Java language is robust which means reliable. It is developed in such a way that it puts a lot of effort into checking errors as early as possible, that is why the java compiler can detect even those errors that are not easy to detect by another programming language. The main features of java that make it robust are garbage collection, Exception Handling, and memory allocation.


  1. Secure: In java, we don’t have pointers, so we cannot access out-of-bound arrays i.e it shows ArrayIndexOutOfBound Exception if we try to do so. That’s why several security flaws like stack corruption or buffer overflow are impossible to exploit in Java.


  1. Distributed: We can create distributed applications using the java programming language. Remote Method Invocation and Enterprise Java Beans are used for creating distributed applications in java. The java programs can be easily distributed on one or more systems that are connected through an internet connection.


  1. Multithreading: Java supports multithreading. It is a Java feature that allows concurrent execution of two or more parts of a program for maximum utilization of the CPU.


  1. Portable: As we know, java code written on one machine can be run on another machine. The platform-independent feature of java in which its platform-independent bytecode can be taken to any platform for execution makes java portable.


  1. High Performance: Java architecture is defined in such a way that it reduces overhead during the runtime and at some time java uses the Just In Time (JIT) compiler where the compiler compiles code on-demand basics where it only compiles those methods that are called making applications to execute faster.


  1. Dynamic flexibility: Java being completely object-oriented gives us the flexibility to add classes, and new methods to existing classes, and even create new classes through sub-classes. Java even supports functions written in other languages such as C, and C++ which are referred to as native methods.


JAVA is an important language in the field of software development. You must visit the Edureify website to learn more about it.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


Question:- What is Java used for?

Ans:- Java is used to write applications for different platforms that run JRE and supports applications that run on a single device like a desktop or mobile phone. Java can also be used to develop applications that work in a distributed manner.


Question:- Is Java easy to learn?

Ans:- Java is easy to learn. Java was designed to be easy to use and is therefore easy to write, compile, debug, and learn than other programming languages. Java is object-oriented. This allows you to create modular programs and reusable code.


Question:- What is Java for beginners?

Java is based on C and C++. The first Java compiler was developed by Sun Microsystems and was written in C using some libraries from C++. Java files are converted to bit code format using a compiler that the Java interpreter then executes. Java code runs on Java Virtual Machine (JVM)—the runtime environment.



Question:- Is Java enough to get a job?

Ans:- According to the Stack Overflow 2019 survey, Java is in the top five most used languages professionally, giving way to JavaScript, HTML/CSS, SQL, and Python. That means companies are actively using it for their projects and there are enough jobs in this field.

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