Quantum Physics is an important part of advanced physics. Based on this advanced concept of physics many new technologies are being developed. One such development is the introduction of Quantum Computing.

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In this article, Edureify will provide all the important information that will aid students to learn everything about Quantum Computing. Read on to learn more.

**What is Quantum Computing?**

An advancement on classical computing, Quantum Computing is an emerging technology that is based on the laws of Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Computing is based on quantum physics that is designed to solve and handle problems that are too complex to be worked on by classic computers.

Back in 1981, Paul Benioff first came up with the idea of a computer that can operate with the mechanics of quantum principles. Though, it is acclaimed that David Deutsch of Oxford University came up with the critical idea behind quantum research. The Quantum Computing study is focused on the development of computer technologies that are based on the principles of quantum theory.

**Quantum Computing based on Quantum Theory**

Quantum Theory studies the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic levels, i.e., the quantum level. Quantum Computing performs specific computational tasks based on the combined usage of bits. This enhances the efficiency of Quantum Computing than classical computing.

**Features of Quantum Computing**

The following are the key features of Quantum Computing-

- Quantum Computing is the branch of computing that focuses on the development of computer technology that is based on quantum theory
- It makes use of the subatomic particles’ power and unusual capacity to simultaneously exist in many states, for example, 0 and 1.
- It can process more data than regular computers
- Its operation state utilizes an object’s quantum state to produce a qubit

**Qubit **

In Quantum Computing, Qubit is the basic unit of information. Just like the role of bits in classical computing, Qubit plays a similar role in Quantum Computing. But both bits and Qubit behave differently. Unlike the binary form of bits that can hold the position of either 0 or 1, Qubit can hold a superposition of all possible states.

**Working of Quantum Computers**

Quantum Computers are compact machines that perform efficiently with less energy than supercomputers. One can run multidimensional quantum algorithms with the use of Qubit.

The following are the components of Quantum Computers that help in its successful working-

**Superfluids:**

Desktop computers have a fan that keeps them cool and maintains their temperature for work. Quantum processors need to have an extremely cold temperature. To be more specific, the processor must have only a hundredth of a degree above absolute zero. This state is achieved with the help of superconductors that are made of supercooled superfluids.

**Superconductors:**

Some materials in the processors exhibit a significant quantum mechanical feature at an ultra-low temperature, and that is, without any resistance electrons can pass through them. This property makes them Superconductors. ‘Cooper pairs’ are generated when electrons flow through superconductors that match up the pairs of electrons. The mechanism of Quantum Tunneling permits these pairs to charge over insulators or barriers. There is a formation of the Josephson junction when two superconductors are arranged on opposite sides of an insulator.

**Control:**

The Qubits that superconduct in the Quantum Computers are Josephson junctions. The behavior of these Qubits can be regulated and one can hold, modify, and read the individual units of the quantum information by issuing microwave photons at them.

**Superposition:**

A Qubit cannot function on its own. It can only perform a vital task, and that is to superposition the quantum information it carries. This represents the combination of all the possible qubit configurations.

Groups of Qubit in superposition can create complex, multidimensional computing landscapes. In such settings, complex problems can be executed in unique ways.

**Entanglement:**

The behavior of two independent objects gets linked which is the entanglement phenomenon of the Quantum mechanism. A change in one Qubit will directly affect the other when two Qubits are entangled. Difficult issues are solved easily in Quantum algorithms with the help of these connections.

**Types of Quantum Computers**

To build a functional Quantum Computer, one needs to pin an object in the superposition state for long to be able to execute various processes on them. However, once the superposition meets any materials that are a part of a scaled system, it loses its in-between state, also known as decoherence. It then becomes an old classical bit.

A Quantum Computer is a device that protects the quantum state from decoherence while they are still easy to read. There are different processes that check such challenges from various angles and decide on a better way to check errors.

**Difference between Classic Computer and Quantum Computer**

The following are the differences between a Classic Computer and a Quantum Computer-

S.No. |
Classic Computer |
Quantum Computer |

1. | The transistors used in Classic Computer can either be 1 or 0. | Quantum Computers use Qubit that can simultaneously be 1 and 0. |

2. | They are ideal for routine chores that need the use of a computer. | They are ideal for medicine or chemical studies as it helps in simulation and data analysis. |

3. | Memory can be added to classic computers that is a part of the traditional computing advancement. | More complicated problems can be solved in Quantum Computers. |

**Need for Quantum Computers**

Supercomputers are used by scientists and engineers for solving challenging issues. Supercomputers are highly powerful traditional computers that have thousands of CPU and GPU cores. However, even Supercomputers can prove to be insufficient to handle complex problems. Here comes the Quantum Computers.

Quantum Computers are built to handle complex problems easily and in less time than classic computers or supercomputers.

Here was the introduction to Quantum Computers and its working.

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**Some FAQs on Quantum Computing-**

**1. What is Quantum Computing?**

An advancement on classical computing, Quantum Computing is an emerging technology that is based on the laws of Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Computing is based on quantum physics that is designed to solve and handle problems that are too complex to be worked on by classic computers.

**2. Who are the two main scientists associated with the development of Quantum Computing?**

Paul Benioff first came up with the idea of a computer that can operate with the mechanics of quantum principles. Though, it is acclaimed that David Deutsch of Oxford University came up with the critical idea behind quantum research.

**3. How is Quantum Computing based on Quantum Theory?**

Quantum Theory studies the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic levels, i.e., the quantum level. Quantum Computing performs specific computational tasks based on the combined usage of bits. This enhances the efficiency of Quantum Computing than classical computing.

**4. What is Qubit?**

In Quantum Computing, Qubit is the basic unit of information. Just like the role of bits in classical computing, Qubit plays a similar role in Quantum Computing. But both bits and Qubit behave differently. Unlike the binary form of bits that can hold the position of either 0 or 1, Qubit can hold a superposition of all possible states.

**5. From where can I learn more about Quantum Computing?**

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