SQL is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). It is particularly useful in handling structured data, i.e. data incorporating relations among entities and variables. SQL offers two main advantages over older read–write APIs such as ISAM or VSAM. Firstly, it introduced the concept of accessing many records with one single command. Secondly, it eliminates the need to specify how to reach a record, e.g. with or without an index. There are many queries in which the coders find difficulty. Let us have a look at the most important 30 queries related to SQL. Edureify also provides bootcamp courses related to SQL and you must visit the official website for the same.
Question:- What is the role of SQL?
Answer:- SQL is a programming language used to perform data-related tasks; every RDBMS uses SQL as its standard programming language. In these databases, SQL allows users to create tables, update data, make queries, and perform analytics.
Question:- What is the difference between SQL and MySQL?
Answer:-SQL is the programming language used in an RDBMS, while MySQL is an example of an RDBMS. MySQL was one of the first open-source database systems on the market, and it is still fairly popular today.
Question:- How do you create a table with SQL?
Answer:- The CREATE TABLE command is used to create a new table in an RDBMS. This command prompts users to fill in the table name, the column names, and the types of data. The same command can also be used to make copies of existing tables.
Question:- How do you insert dates with SQL?
Answer:- With SQL, the DATE data type is used to store data or time values in the database. The format for inserting dates can vary depending on the RDBMS, but generally it’s ‘YYYY-MM-DD’.
Question:- What is a query?
Answer:- A query is a request for data or information from a database. There are two main types of SQL queries:
A select query is a query that groups data from a table for analytical purposes
An action query is a query that changes the contents of the database based on specified criteria.
Question:- What is a subquery?
Answer:- A subquery is a query that is embedded within another statement that requires multiple steps. The subquery provides the enclosing query with additional information needed to execute a task, such as when the completion of one query depends firstly on the results of another.
Question:- How do you perform a select query with SQL?
Answer:- The process for performing a select query in SQL is as follows:
- The SELECT statement is used to specify the columns you want to query
- The FROM statement is used to specify the particular table holding the data
- The WHERE statement is used to filter data based on specified conditions
Question:- What are the most important types of action queries?
Answer:- There are several SQL statements for running an action query. Their purposes and procedures vary. Some of the important action statements include:
- UPDATE modifies the values of fields in a table
- DELETE remove records from a table
- CREATE TABLE creates a new table
- INSERT INTO adds records to a table
Question:- What are constraints?
Answer:- SQL constraints are a set of rules or conditions implemented on an RDBMS to specify what data can be inserted, updated, or deleted in its tables. This is done to maintain data integrity and ensure that the information stored in database tables is accurate.
Question:- What are join clauses?
Answer:- The join clause combines columns with related values from two or more tables to create a new table. There are four main types of SQL join clause:
- JOIN returns records with matching values in both tables
- LEFT JOIN returns all records from the left table and matching records from the right table
- RIGHT JOIN returns all records from the right table and matching records from the left table
- FULL JOIN returns all records from both tables
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Question:- What is the role of indexes?
Answer:- An SQL index stores important parts of a database table to allow for a quick and efficient lookup. Rather than searching the entire database, users only have to consult the index during data retrieval. Indexes, therefore, help improve performance in an RDBMS.
Question:- What does a NULL value represent?
Answer:- A NULL value indicates the data is unknown. This is not the same as 0; NULL values mean no data is stored at all.
Question:- What are the different types of SQL commands?
Answer:- SQL commands are used to perform specific tasks within the database. There are five main types:
- Data Definition Language (DDL) commands change the structure of the database
- Data Manipulation Language (DML) commands modify data in database tables
- Data Control Language (DCL) commands manage user access to the database
- Transaction Control Language (TCL) commands manage transactions made by DML commands
- Data Query Language (DQL) commands retrieve information from the database
Question:- What is an alias SQL Query?
Answer:- Aliases are temporary names given to tables or columns for the duration of a particular SQL query. Their purpose is to reduce the amount of code required for that query, therefore saving time and effort. Bootcamp coding courses admissions are going on at Edureify which can help you in fetching career opportunities in the future.
Question:- What is the difference between normalization and denormalization in SQL query?
Answer:- Normalization is the process of dividing data into tables to remove redundant data and improve data integrity.
Denormalization is used to combine multiple tables in order to reduce the time required to perform queries.
Question:- How do you create an index with SQL?
Answer:-The syntax for creating an index can vary depending on the RDBMS. In most systems, the CREATE INDEX statement is used to initiate the process. The user is then prompted to name the index and select columns that will make up the index.
Question:- What are the most important SQL constraints and how are they used?
Answer:-Here are some of the most commonly used SQL constraints:
- NOT NULL ensures a column cannot contain a NULL value
- UNIQUE ensures all values in a column are different
- DEFAULT provides a default value for a column when none is specified
- INDEX creates an index for data retrieval purposes
Question:- What are the key differences between clustered and non-clustered indexes?
Answer:- The key differences between clustered and non-clustered indexes are:
- Clustered indexes define the physical order in which tables are stored and sort them accordingly, whereas non-clustered indexes create a logical order that doesn’t match the physical order of the rows on the disk
- Clustered indexes sort data rows based on their key values, whereas non-clustered indexes use a structure separate from the data rows
Question:- What are the different types of subqueries?
Answer:There are three main types of SQL subqueries. These are:
- Single-row subqueries, which return one row in results
- Multi-row subqueries, which return two or more rows in results
- Correlated subqueries, which return results according to outer queries
Question:- How is the cursor used in SQL?
Answer:- The cursor allows users to process data from a result set, one row at a time.
- Cursors are an alternative to commands, which operate on all rows in a result set at the same time. Unlike commands, cursors can be used to update data on a row-by-row basis.
Question:- What are the different types of collation sensitivity?
Answer:- Collation refers to a set of rules or conditions that influence how data is stored and ordered. There are several types of SQL collation, including:
- Case sensitivity, which distinguishes between uppercase and lowercase characters
- Accent sensitivity, which distinguishes between accented and unaccented characters. You can know more about SQL when you opt for the bootcamp coding courses offered by Edureify.
- Width sensitivity, which distinguishes between full-width and half-width characters
Question:- How do you select all even or odd numbers in a table?
Answer:- The MOD function can be used in most RDBMSs as part of the WHERE statement in a select query to retrieve odd or even data entries in a table.
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The formatting is as follows:
For even numbers, use ‘MOD (column name, 2) = 1’
For odd numbers, use ‘MOD (column name, 2) = 0’
Question:- How do you rename a column in SQL?
Answer:- A column can be renamed by following these steps:
- Use ‘ALTER TABLE table name’ to select the table with the column you want to rename
- Use ‘RENAME COLUMN old name to new name’ to rename the column
Question:- What are the key differences between the DELETE and TRUNCATE SQL commands?
Answer:- The main differences between the DELETE and TRUNCATE commands are:
- DELETE is a DML command, whereas TRUNCATE is a DDL command
- DELETE removes records and records each deletion in the transaction log, whereas TRUNCATE deallocates pages and records each deallocation in the transaction log
- TRUNCATE is generally considered quicker as it makes less use of the transaction log
Question:- How do you copy data from one table to another?
Answer:- Data from one table can be copied into another by following these steps:
- Use the INSERT INTO statement and specify the destination as the new table
- Use the SELECT statement to specify the columns to copy (select all if you want to copy the complete table)
- Use the WHERE statement to specify the table you want to copy
Question:- How would you write a query to identify employees belonging to a particular department?
Answer:- Finding data entries belonging to a particular group (in this case, employees belonging to a particular department) can be achieved in a few ways. These include:
- Use SELECT, FROM, and WHERE statements
- Use SELECT, FROM, GROUP BY, and HAVING statements
- Use SELECT, FROM, INNER JOIN, and WHERE statements
Question:- How do you delete a column?
Answer:- A column in a table can be deleted by following these steps:
- Use ‘ALTER TABLE table name’ to select the table with the column you want to delete
- Use ‘DROP COLUMN column name’ to select the column you want to delete
Question:- How would you write a SQL query to find entrants whose names begin with A?
Answer:-You can retrieve data entries beginning with a particular letter using the LIKE command by following these steps:
- Use the SELECT statement to specify the column with the names you want to vet
- Use the FROM statement to specify the table containing that column
- Use ‘WHERE column name’ followed by ‘LIKE x%’, with x representing the letter you are searching for
- Use ‘ORDER by column name’ to complete the query
Question:- What are some of the most important aggregate functions?
Answer:- Aggregate values are used to perform calculations on a set of values to return a single value. Some of the most widely used aggregate functions are:
- AVG calculates the average set of values
- COUNT counts the total number of rows in a table
- MIN finds the minimum value in a table
- MAX finds the maximum value in a table
- SUM calculates the sum of the values
Question:- What does schema mean in SQL query?
Answer:- A schema refers to a collection of database objects—such as tables, functions, indexes, and procedures—associated with a database.
The schema helps segregate database objects for different applications and access rights; it’s generally used to define who can and who cannot view specific objects in the database.
Question:- What are some of the most important scalar functions?
Answer:- Scalar functions are user-defined functions applied to a set of data to return a single value. Some of the most common scalar functions include:
- UCASE converts values to uppercase
- LCASE converts values to lowercase
- MID extracts textual data based on specified criteria
- ROUND rounds numerical data to a specified number of decimals
- NOW returns the current system date and time
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question:- How can SQL queries be optimized?
Answer:- There are several ways to optimize queries and improve performance. For example:
- Specify particular columns with SELECT rather than by using SELECT * (select all)
- Make joins with INNER JOIN rather than WHERE
- Define filters using WHERE rather than HAVING
- Avoid looping statements in the query structure
Question:- What are the different types of normalization?
Answer:- The process of SQL normalization can be divided into six steps or types. These include:
- First Normal Form (1NF) to ensure rows and columns always contain singular, unique values
- Second Normal Form (2NF) to remove all partial dependencies
- Third Normal Form (3NF) to remove all transitive functional dependencies
- Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) or Fourth Normal Form (4NF) to ensure all functional dependencies are a super key to the table
- Fifth Normal Form (5NF) to ensure decomposition doesn’t result in any loss of data
- Sixth Normal Form (6NF) to decompose the relation variables into irreducible components
Question:- What are the ACID properties in SQL?
Answer:- ACID is an acronym for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. These are the four key properties for ensuring data integrity during a transaction.
The role of each property is as follows:
- Atomicity: Changes to data are performed as a single, unified operation
- Consistency: Data values are consistent at the start and end of the transaction
- Isolation: The intermediate state of a transaction is hidden from other transactions
- Durability: Changes to data remain the same after the transaction is completed
Question:- What are the different types of stored procedures?
Answer:-Stored procedures are chunks of SQL code that can be saved and reused. The main types of stored procedures are:
- User-defined stored procedures, which are created by users
- System stored procedures are default procedures placed permanently on the system
- Temporary stored procedures are procedures that are dropped when the session is closed
- Remote stored procedures, which are created and stored on remote servers