Longitude and Latitude
Longitude and Latitude

Earth is modelled spherically on a globe. Similar to certain maps, it has uses. A terrestrial globe is a model of the Earth. A celestial globe is a replica of the celestial sphere. Latitude refers to the distance north or south of the Equator on a globe or map. It is calculated from the Prime Meridian, a fictitious north-south line. Location east or west of the prime meridian at Greenwich is measured by longitude.

 Latitude is an angle, with the equator having a latitude of 0° and the poles having a latitude of 90°. By consulting the CBSE Class 6 Geography notes for Chapter 2 – Globe Latitudes and Longitudes, students may fully comprehend these concepts.

Globes come in a variety of shapes and sizes, including large globes, little pocket globes, and balloons that resemble globes. The globe can be turned in the same manner that a topspin or a potter’s wheel can be turned because it is not fixed. Countries, continents, and oceans are depicted on the globe in their accurate sizes.

The axis of the globe is a fixed needle that is slanted through it. The North Pole and South Pole are the two poles on the globe through which the needle travels.

From west to east, the globe can be spun around the needle in a manner similar to how the world rotates. But there is a significant distinction. The axis of the actual earth, which is a hypothetical line, rotates. The world is divided into two equal halves by another imaginary line. The equator is the name for this line. The Northern Hemisphere of the world is the northern half, and the Southern Hemisphere is the southern half. They each make up equal parts.

Important Parallels of the Latitude

  • Tropic of Cancer (23½° N) in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Tropic of Capricorn (23½° S) in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Arctic Circle at 66½° north of the equator.
  • Antarctic Circle at 66½° south of the equator.

Longitude- Longitude meridian lines are traced from the North and South Poles and are perpendicular to the Equator. Degrees of longitude are used to measure the separations between meridians of longitude. Minutes are further divided into seconds for each degree, and seconds into minutes.

The Prime Meridian is a hypothetical line on Earth that runs through the Greenwich Observatory in London, England, going from north to south. The Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are separated by the prime meridian. The prime meridian is located at longitude 0°. The letters E for the east and W for the west are placed after a location’s longitude.

What is the use of having Standard Time?

Any location on a different meridian will have a different local time. For instance, in India, the local hours of Dibrugarh in Assam and Dwarka in Gujarat will differ by approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes.

 As a result, the local time of a country’s central meridian must be adopted as the nation’s standard time. In India, the standard meridian is considered to be at longitude 8212° E (82° 30’E). The standard time for the entire nation is determined by the local time at this meridian. The time is referred to as Indian Standard Time (IST).

Heat Zones of the Earth

Torrid Zones – At least once a year, the midday sun lies directly overhead at all latitudes between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. As a result, this region is known as the Torrid Zone and receives the most heat.

Temperate Zones – Any latitude outside of the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn has no midday sun above. As you get closer to the poles, the sun’s rays’ angle continues to decrease. This results in moderate temperatures in the regions bordered by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere. 

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