OOP is one of the most fundamental programming concepts. Let’s explore the four main OOP concepts in Java and discuss how each works.Java is one of many programming languages and technologies supported by a leading tool or tools.

Definition of OOP Concepts in Java

The main ideas behind Java’s Object-Oriented Programming and OOP concepts include abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. Java OOP concepts let us create working methods and variables, then re-use all or part of them without compromising security. Grasping OOP concepts is key to understanding how Java works.

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Java defines OOP concepts as follows:

  • Abstraction. Using simple things to represent complexity. We all know how to turn the TV on, but we don’t need to know how it works to enjoy it. In Java, abstraction means simple things like objects, classes, and variables represent more complex underlying code and data. This is important because it lets you avoid repeating the same work multiple times.
  • Encapsulation. The practice of keeping fields within a class private, then providing access to those fields via public methods. Encapsulation is a protective barrier that keeps the data and code safe within the class itself. We can then reuse objects like code components or variables without allowing open access to the data system-wide.
  • Inheritance. A special feature of Object-Oriented Programming in Java, Inheritance lets programmers create new classes that share some of the attributes of existing classes. Using Inheritance lets us build on previous work without reinventing the wheel.
  • Polymorphism. Allows programmers to use the same word in Java to mean different things in different contexts. One form of polymorphism is method overloading. That’s when the code itself implies different meanings. The other form is method overriding. That’s when the values of the supplied variables imply different meanings. Let’s delve a little further.

How OOP Concepts in Java Work

OOP concepts in Java work by letting programmers create components that are reusable in different ways while maintaining security.

How Abstraction Works

Abstraction lets programmers create useful and reusable tools. For example, a programmer can create several different types of objects, which can be variables, functions, or data structures. Programmers can also create different classes of objects as ways to define the objects.

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For instance, a class of variable might be an address. The class might specify that each address object shall have a name, street, city, and zip code. The objects, in this case, might be employee addresses, customer addresses, or supplier addresses.

How Encapsulation Works

Encapsulation lets us reuse functionality without jeopardizing security. It’s a powerful, time-saving OOP concept in Java. For example, we may create a piece of code that calls specific data from a database. It may be useful to reuse that code with other databases or processes. Encapsulation lets us do that while keeping our original data private. It also lets us alter our original code without breaking it for others who have adopted it in the meantime.

How Inheritance Works

Inheritance is another labor-saving Java OOP concept that works by letting a new class adopt the properties of another. We call the inheriting class a subclass or a child class. The original class is often called the parent. We use the keyword extends to define a new class that inherits properties from an old class.

How Polymorphism Works

Polymorphism in Java works by using a reference to a parent class to affect an object in the child class. We might create a class called “horse” by extending the “animal” class. That class might also implement the “professional racing” class. The “horse” class is “polymorphic,” since it inherits attributes of both the “animal” and “professional racing” class.

Two more examples of polymorphism in Java are method overriding and method overloading.

  • In method overriding, the child class can use the OOP polymorphism concept to override a method of its parent class. That allows a programmer to use one method in different ways depending on whether it’s invoked by an object of the parent class or an object of the child class.
  • In method overloading, a single method may perform different functions depending on the context in which it’s called. This means a single method name might work in different ways depending on what arguments are passed to it. Download the Eduriefy app now for some extra information on important programming courses.

Why Should One Learn OOPs through JAVA

The goal of OOP concepts in Java is to save time without sacrificing security and ease of use. The following best practices are all oriented toward advancing that main goal.

  • DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself). A core concept in Java, DRY simply means you should never have two blocks of identical code in two different places. Instead, have one method you use for different applications.
  • If you expect your Java code to change in the future, encapsulate it by making all variables and methods private at the outset. As the code changes, increase access to “protected” as needed, but not too public.
  • Single Responsibility. This best practice principle for OOP concepts in Java states that a class should always have only one functionality. That way, the class can be called and/or extended on its own when new uses arise for it, without causing coupling between different functionalities.
  • Open Closed Design. Make all methods and classes Closed for modification but open for an extension. That way, tried and tested code can remain static but can be modified to perform new tasks as needed.

These concepts and best practices are only as great as the developers that implement them. To make your work better, you need productivity tools to improve your Java programming. This can be made possible if you enroll yourself in the courses provided by Edureify.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Question:- What are the 4 OOP concepts in Java?

Answer:- The main ideas behind Java’s Object-Oriented Programming, and OOP concepts include abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.

Question:- What is an abstraction in Java?

Answer:- An Abstraction is a process of exposing all the necessary details and hiding the rest. In Java, Data Abstraction is defined as the process of reducing the object to its essence so that only the necessary characteristics are exposed to the users.

Question:- What is polymorphism in oops?

Answer:- Polymorphism is one of the core concepts in OOP languages and describes the concept wherein you can use different classes with the same interface. Each of these classes can provide its implementation of the interface.

Question:- What is overriding in Java?

Answer:- In Java, method overriding occurs when a subclass (child class) has the same method as the parent class. In other words, method overriding occurs when a subclass provides a particular implementation of a method declared by one of its parent classes.

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